According to the social correspondent of rahnam News Agency, recently, during the review of the bill of the Seventh Development Plan, the representatives of the Islamic Council increased the retirement age for different groups in order to reduce the disparity of pension funds.
With the approval of the parliament and the final approval of the Guardian Council, the retirement age for men will reach 62 years and for women will reach 55 years.
The reason for this action can be “The dissatisfaction of pension funds and their crisis in securing pensioners’ claims and rights” However, since the announcement of this resolution, there have been many criticisms of increasing the retirement age.
To investigate the dimensions of this issue and find the root causes of the deterioration of the pension funds, a conversation with Mehdi Esfandiar; Health and social welfare expert You can read the description of the first part below:
rahnam: What happened that made the policymakers think of increasing the retirement age?
In 1361, during the war, a law was passed that, in order to boost employment, they gave part of the insurance exemptions to a number of workshops with a benevolent goal. In the post-war period, all the facilities of the country should have been provided for the development of the country and the strengthening of employment, but after the war, the representatives in the third development program approved that the workshops with less than 5 people are exempted from paying insurance premiums! At that time, the parliamentarians passed this law to provide a balance sheet for employment, while the necessary appropriations did not exist.
At that time, the jobs of carpet weavers, beekeepers and some workers were exempted from paying employers’ insurance premiums, while the credits were not seen and they said that the government would pay for it. But now it is estimated that the government owes 900 thousand billion tomans to the social security organization.
rahnam: Does raising the retirement age solve the problems of pension funds?
No; It should be warned that the policies of the 7th Development Plan in the field of insurance and pension funds not only do not solve the problem but also create a crisis.
rahnam: Why increasing the retirement age is not a solution to the bankruptcy of pension funds?
First, this increase in retirement years is not a solution because in any caseThe country is facing a decline in the birth rate and a tsunami of retirees, and raising the retirement age is just a temporary solution.
Raising the retirement age will only slow down the collapse of pension funds, but eventually the collapse will happen.
Another challenge, the raising of the retirement age, is that the labor market is occupied by retirees who are content to work for low income and without sufficient pay, and these retirees reduce the wage level because they are willing to work for less, and therefore somewhere There is no employment left for young people.
On the other hand, the government has ignored some economic imperatives; We have super-challenges in the country, the cure for which is the big economy, and it cannot be cured in the small economy, so we must pay attention to the country’s limited resources and know that the rejuvenation of the population will not be achieved without solving the economic problems.
On the other hand, people hear promises from governments that do not come true; The government does not provide significant facilities to the people for having children, and for this reason, when it comes to increasing the number of children, families do not trust the government, because if they have a child, they will have to pay all the expenses themselves, and they will not be supported.
As we have seen now, people are encouraged to have children, while due to mismanagement, there is a shortage of infant formula in the country! Seeing these conditions, people realize that the promises have not been fulfilled and the social capital, which is the people’s trust in the authorities, is also lost. Therefore, the main challenge of raising the retirement age is that the population is not young! It will still stand.
On the other hand, when in a country where the number of sports per capita is low and people work 44 hours a week, the retirement age increases, osteoporosis, obesity, blood pressure, and diabetes increase because these diseases are prevalent in people over 40 years old, and if If these people work until the age of 60, nothing will happen except for their disability and causing trouble and creating a tsunami in medical expenses.
rahnam: What solutions have other countries used to solve the problems of pension funds?
The biggest fundamental mistake in formulating public policies is to try to adopt a policy in our country with a partial view of foreign countries. Every country has its own requirements; This is not meant to ignore the structures and frameworks of the advanced countries of the world, but their policies should not be implemented in the country.
The biggest corruption in the field of public policy was formed when some translators translated the decisions of different countries and implemented them case by case in the country! The result was that a part of the policy that was favorable for some was brought into the country and the nation was put in trouble.
Now, in the field of pensions, we say that the funds have a mismatch; It is wrong to deal with the situation and not look for the culprit; It’s like recognizing a looter inside a building and concluding that the people in that building need to work harder!
rahnam: What is the solution to solving the problems of pension funds and preventing the increase of the retirement age?
Any new insurance system established in the country is doomed to failure with the legislative system of our country because the governments have a great potential to destroy public property while all the governments that come to work have a benevolent view, but because the words of the experts are not heard. Events happen and unfortunately in our country policy changes do not happen except when a disaster occurs.
At the moment, The main challenge is that the independence of insurance organizations is not recognized And some are trying to intervene in it by passing laws, outside of the law of the social security organization; For example, in the health system, a member of the parliament pressures that a certain drug be covered by insurance, while there is never any thought to finance it.
The biggest corruptions in the history of Iran in the social security organization have occurred with the approval of laws, while the approval of laws without providing the required financial burden is prohibited.
A basic solution is that the government should recognize the independence of the social security organization; The government should carry out the task of monitoring the performance of the social security organization and determine the assignment of uncertain funds and prevent the adoption of laws in the field of insurance without providing the necessary financial burden and credits for the implementation of these laws.
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